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We applied social cognitive theory and the job demands–resources model to examine the relationship between challenge and hindrance stressor types and taking charge. The sample comprised 242 Master of Business Administration students at a university located in eastern China. The regression results reveal that challenge stressors positively predicted taking charge, and that the direct effect of hindrance stressors on taking charge was nonsignificant. Control appraisals positively mediated the relationship between challenge stressors and taking charge, and negatively mediated the relationship between hindrance stressors and taking charge. The positive relationship between challenge stressors and control appraisals was stronger when resource acquisition tactics were highly proactive rather than when they were less proactive. Proactive resource acquisition tactics also moderated the indirect effect of challenge stressors on taking charge through control appraisals. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.