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We explored the impact of experiencing childhood abuse on exhibiting aggressive behavior, and the mediating roles of self-esteem and self-control in this relationship. Participants were 425 male juvenile offenders at two prisons in China, who completed the Childhood Abuse Questionnaire, the Self-Esteem Scale, the Self-Control Scale, and the Aggression Questionnaire. As we had predicted, the chain mediating effect of self-esteem and self-control on the relationship between childhood abuse and aggressive behavior was significant. The findings benefit our understanding of the mechanisms underlying the relationship between childhood abuse and aggressive behavior among juvenile offenders.