Influence of chief executive officer servant leadership on middle managers’ voice behavior
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On the basis of social learning theory, we explored the mechanism through which chief executive officers’ use of the servant leadership style affects middle managers’ voice behavior. We analyzed data obtained from a sample of managers of firms in the energy industry in China. We found that chief executive officers’ servant leadership had a positive influence on organizational collective promotion focus through its effects on top management team servant leadership. Further, organizational collective promotion focus was positively correlated with middle managers’ voice behavior through the mediator of middle managers’ promotion focus. Finally, a promotion focus motivated middle managers to speak out more often in their organizations. Theoretical and managerial implications are discussed.