Self-presentation in sport: Initial development

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Matthew Williams
Joanne Hudson
Romy J. Lawson
Cite this article:  Williams, M., Hudson, J., & Lawson, R. (1999). Self-presentation in sport: Initial development. Social Behavior and Personality: An international journal, 27(5), 487-502.


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Self-presentation theory explains some of the underpinnings of anxiety/stress in competitive sport (Leary, 1992). James and Collins (1997) revealed that competitive self-presentation concerns (CSPC) are implicated in some competitive anxiety/stress experienced by athletes. Measures are therefore needed to assess athletes' CSPC. This study's aim was to develop such a tool. Four subscales were proposed and were supported by a confirmatory factor analysis (GFI = 0.92). These were as follows: concern over the impression made on others; fear of appearing incompetent; concern over current form, and fear of appearing unable to cope with pressure. The scale's temporal stability and internal consistency were acceptable – but limited convergent validity was demonstrated. Recommendations are made for the scale's application and further development.


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