Development of the Children’s Sport Locus of Control Scale

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Jun-Jie Tsai
Chen-Jung Hsieh
Cite this article:  Tsai, J., & Hsieh, C. (2015). Development of the Children’s Sport Locus of Control Scale. Social Behavior and Personality: An international journal, 43(2), 315-326.


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We developed the Children’s Sport Locus of Control Scale (CSLCS) based on Rotter’s (1954) social learning theory. Participants were 750 fifth- and sixth-grade elementary school students. We developed the scale through a series of analyses, including item analysis, exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses, simultaneous multigroup covariance analysis, and criterion- related validity analysis. The CSLCS comprises 12 items, of which 6 items measure ability and responsibility in the internal control dimension, and 6 items measure environment and chance in the external control dimension. The results of the analyses confirmed that this scale has good reliability, validity, and measurement invariance, and that it also satisfies all fit measures. The 6 measures of internal locus of control in the CSLCS are suited for measuring children’s sport locus of control, and the measurement results will not differ across gender. Finally, we offer suggestions to future researchers.

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