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In this study individualism and collectivism are, for the first time, incorporated into a conceptual model of organizational citizenship behavior (OCB). I asked whether individualism and collectivism show systematic differences in their relationships with OCB, its motives, and the development of a citizen role identity. Collectivism most strongly correlated with OCB motivated by concern for coworkers. A concept of self as one who helps others at work was also associated with collectivism. Individualism was associated more with a commitment to the well-being of the institution per se rather than to its employees. Individualism and collectivism were related positively, suggesting that these seemingly opposing attributes are complementary; which of these traits predominates may depend on which citizenship behavior is needed at a given time. Overall, the findings suggest that it is not in amount of citizenship that individualists and collectivists differ, but in why they serve and how they perceive the experience.