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Gender role identity (androgyny, masculinity, femininity), and its link to gender and academic achievement were examined across a sample of Korean and American college students. Results indicate that the androgyny group represented the largest proportion in the American sample, while the femininity group was the largest in the Korean sample. Korean students with masculinity achieved the highest score in Korean Sooneung Examination, followed by the androgyny group. In contrast, American students in the femininity group scored highest in the American College Testing examination. Academic performance in Korean male students differed across socioeconomic status but that of the American male students was influenced more by gender role identity than by socioeconomic status.