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Low self-esteem in learning disabled or emotionally disturbed children has been reported as a result of their failures in various social and educational settings (e.g., Conley, Ghavami, Vonohlen, & Foulkes, 2007). To verify such a decline, a number of self-esteem scales have been used in research. These usually utilize positive and negative items. For example, the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES; Rosenberg, 1965) has five positive descriptions and five negative descriptions.
This work was supported by (JSPS) KAKENHI (Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (C) 14580260
Appreciation is due to anonymous reviewers.
Masako Tsurumaki, Fukushima University, Faculty of Human Development and Culture, Kanayagawa 1, Fukushima, Fukushima Prefecture, 960-1296, Japan. Phone: +81-24-548-8173; Fax: +81-24-548-8173; Email: [email protected]