The effect of negatively worded measures of self-esteem on children

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Masako Tsurumaki
Taku Sato
Yoshiaki Nihei
Cite this article:  Tsurumaki, M., Sato, T., & Nihei, Y. (2009). The effect of negatively worded measures of self-esteem on children. Social Behavior and Personality: An international journal, 37(10), 1383-1384.


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Low self-esteem in learning disabled or emotionally disturbed children has been reported as a result of their failures in various social and educational settings (e.g., Conley, Ghavami, Vonohlen, & Foulkes, 2007). To verify such a decline, a number of self-esteem scales have been used in research. These usually utilize positive and negative items. For example, the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES; Rosenberg, 1965) has five positive descriptions and five negative descriptions.

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This work was supported by (JSPS) KAKENHI (Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (C) 14580260

18530680).

Appreciation is due to anonymous reviewers.

Masako Tsurumaki, Fukushima University, Faculty of Human Development and Culture, Kanayagawa 1, Fukushima, Fukushima Prefecture, 960-1296, Japan. Phone: +81-24-548-8173; Fax: +81-24-548-8173; Email: [email protected]

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