Validation of the Chinese version of the Achievement Emotions Questionnaire–Elementary School
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We developed the Chinese version of the Achievement Emotions Questionnaire–Elementary School (AEQ-ES), and tested its internal and external validity with a sample of 426 Chinese elementary school students aged between 6 and 10 years in three academic settings (class, homework, and test) of mathematics classes. The hierarchical model of the AEQ-ES for our Chinese sample was consistent with those obtained with samples of students in similar age groups in Italy, Germany, and the United States. We assessed the achievement emotions of enjoyment, boredom, and anxiety and found that girls (vs. boys) reported more class-related enjoyment, more academic effort, less class-related anxiety, less boredom, and less homework-related boredom. Our results show that the Chinese version of the AEQ-ES is both valid and reliable; thus, it can be used in future studies.